Treatment efficacy of physical agents in osteoarthritis of the knee (OAK) pain has been largely unknown, and this systematic review was aimed at assessing their short-term efficacies for pain relief. Systematic review with meta-analysis of efficacy within 1–4 weeks and at follow up at 1–12 weeks after the end of treament.
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Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a nonpharmacological intervention that activates a complex neuronal network to reduce pain by activating descending inhibitory systems in the central nervous system to reduce hyperalgesia. The evidence for TENS efficacy is conflicting and requires not only description but also critique. Population-specific systemic reviews and meta-analyses are emerging, indicating both HF and LF TENS being shown to provide analgesia, specifically when applied at a strong, nonpainful intensity. The purpose of this article is to provide a critical review of the latest basic science and clinical evidence for TENS.
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Low back pain (LBP) is a leading cause of work absenteeism and visits to healthcare professionals. Around 60–90% of the adult population is at risk of developing LBP at some point in their lifetime. It is estimated that 10–20% of affected adults develop symptoms of chronic LBPdefined as persistent pain occurring on most days and lasting longer than three consecutive months.
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SUBLIMED TENS, an innovative connected and wearable transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) device for the relief of chronic low back pain.
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